Friday, December 22, 2006
Wednesday, December 20, 2006
It highlights some of the challenges facing education with the advent of this open, democratic and interactive web. There is a particular debate to be had about how VLEs measure up to Web 2.0 - and which one we should use within education. There is a similar debate to be had about assessment. It's been argued that the choice of online assessment system is moot since students were increasingly using the assessment system that came as part of the school/college/university VLE. But does Web 2.0 make the VLE obsolete?
Friday, December 08, 2006
Tuesday, December 05, 2006
I see both arguments. My limited use of SharePoint doesn't fill me with excitement in the same way that some Web 2 technologies do - but I appreciate that Glow needs to be built on firm foundations (even if they are a little bland).
My real worry about Glow isn't so much the underlying technology but the danger that it becomes a sort of "pretend internet" - with so many restrictions on what young people can do that they can't wait to ditch it the second they walk out the school gates.
Saturday, November 25, 2006
Thursday, November 16, 2006
Tuesday, November 14, 2006
Smartgroups closure is also a loss to the Web too since it grew out of "E-Groups", which was one of the original online communities. It's been bought out several times over the years and the most recent owner (Orange) clearly did not see a viable business model - although it might strike some as strange to pull the plug at the very time when social networking is taking off and reaping huge benefits for some.
Smartgroups is currently providing advice on how to migrate your groups to other providers and I plan to use a mix of Yahoo Groups and Google Groups - neither is as nice to use as Smartgroups although Google Groups beta shows promise.
I've setup a Google Group for e-assessment and another for Internet safety so please visit these websites if you want to subscribe to either of these groups.
Sunday, October 29, 2006
Monday, October 23, 2006
Sunday, October 15, 2006
Tuesday, October 10, 2006
VOIP (incl. video)
Wednesday, September 27, 2006
Friday, September 15, 2006
Although I think that there are some flaws in his argument (such as students'a abilities to use web services), I appreciate the richness that the raw Internet provides to learners - a richness that no VLE can hope to match.
Tuesday, September 12, 2006
Tuesday, August 22, 2006
LTS has launched a new updated Glow Scotland website too, to show off the new branding, provide extra information, and present short videos.
For those of us working on this huge broadband project, its great to see it moving forward. Now raising awareness of Glow's potential among teachers and other educators is a priority, so there are seminars and presentations at SETT in September and further events planned.
Some of the blogs written by Scottish education people are already commenting on Glow.
For example, Andrew Brown in Argyll. Let's have lots of thinking and discussion, and make Glow something truly useful for us all. And yes, it helps keep me in a job!
Wednesday, August 16, 2006
A BBC news item "Young drive 'radical media shift'" reports on recent research. Young people aged 16 to 24 are turning away from consuming television, radio and newspapers in favour of online services and new media. More time online, and a wide range of applications and services in use.
One implication of this for Education: how much of our own service should we be placing online, and in what forms?
Here in Scotland our Scottish Schools Digital Network will enable us to make much more available in online forms, with collaboration and communication tools to encourage interaction and learning.
Other Ofcom reports look at the Media Literacy of adults and young people, their ability to use the various old and new media to both consume and create.
Experience suggests that things would be no different here in Scotland. Some people would argue that this doesnt matter, as that's the way society is now. Me, I'm old-fashioned. I would prefer that teachers who are educating our children are in a position of strength in terms of skills, and do not undermine their own position in front of colleagues or students.
But the story also makes me wonder about the entry standards for teacher training. Should weaknesses in core skills not be identified, and addressed, before entry?
Wednesday, August 09, 2006
Schools, colleges and national organisations are publicly funded - and what better way of sharing information than putting it on a public forum such as Wikipedia? The fact that it is accessible to a global audience is another advantage since (potentially) it means that people living in countries with less well developed education systems can benefit from our contributions.
Moodle is fast becoming the 'Wikipedia of online learning', being a open source virtual learning environment. The Open University has adopted it and many Scottish colleges are currently adding content to their own Moodle systems. My own current project (Internet Safety) will use Moodle to host the online learning material - so all of the pilot centres (which includes almost 40 schools) will get exposure to this system.
The adoption of open systems (such as Wikimedia and Moodle) is an exciting development -- to which Scottish education can make an important contribution.
Friday, August 04, 2006
This probably just confirms what many of us already believed, about the inspirational and supportive effects a good teacher can have. - But does it also imply that having a particularly poor, disinterested or aggressive teacher can significantly 'push' a struggling teenager towards anti-social behaviour?
Held at the SECC in Glasgow, on Wednesday 20th and Thursday 21st September 2006. Loads of seminars and presentations by people who know their stuff, including many real teachers. The subjects include ICT in education in multiple forms and many of the core and niche areas of Scottish school and lifelong learning. All this accompanied by a large exhibition area with companies and organisations showing off their products and services for educators. Plus the usual coffee and food outlets which some find disturbingly compelling..
There's the chance to talk to people like me face-to-face, on the Learning and Teaching Scotland stand or around the show. Not something that appeals to everyone, but hey. I'm available.
Thursday, August 03, 2006
Monday, July 31, 2006
That seems a really backward step to me. With 'Scottish Schools Broadband Network' and many other ICT projects, we're busy encouraging students to work more outside classrooms and school - in homes, libraries, and anywhere else they find it suitable to study!
Thursday, July 27, 2006
A Scottish Executive Education Department news story "Education programme gets a glowing report" describes the evaluation of a SEED programme which targeted under-achievers in Scottish secondary schools.
The interventions supported by the 'Xlerate with XL' programme made a significant difference to the young people involved, showing gains in their self-awareness, abilities, communication skills, etc. The research evaluation report is also online.
This kind of programme activity is intended to prevent teenagers joining the NEET category of young people. "Not in Employment, Education or Training".
Is NEET rapidly becoming a term with a stigma attached, as a casual term for 'potential problem teenagers', like the other Scottish label 'neds'?
Thursday, July 06, 2006
Monday, June 26, 2006
Friday, June 02, 2006
Click here for a link to the Centre for Educational Sociology's Education and Youth Transitions across Britain briefings - numbers 39 and 40.
Nevertheless, the government issued a response to the consultation making a number of recommendations for implementation in 2008/09 with a view to working towards post-qualification applications by 2012.
The government’s summary of their response is given below; the full response can be viewed by clicking here.
Although UK-wide, this seems to be aimed more at an English problem than a Scottish one. If PQA were introduced, it would have particular implications in Scotland given the earlier summer holidays, (eg, it may be that teachers would have to come in during the holidays to offer guidance to their students) while possibly not improving the higher education application process significantly.
Ofsted’s director of education said, ‘Students try to pass exams by memorising lots of unconnected facts rather than a few guiding principles. The current approach to teaching mathematics is not giving students the understanding they require and this must change’. The Association of School and College Leaders responded to the criticism by saying that Ofsted judged schools’ performance on the results of tests and classroom practice was, therefore, based on them.
Do we have the same issues in Scotland?
Wednesday, May 24, 2006
For full details of the Futures Project, click here.
Tuesday, May 16, 2006
Sunday, May 14, 2006
Friday, May 05, 2006
Anton's talk was particularly interesting since he described SQA's approach to e-assessment and explained how it linked to key Scottish developments such as A Curriculum for Excellence.
There are plans to make this an annual event.
Monday, May 01, 2006
The £499 million of funding includes:
• £414 million for the delivery of teaching to students;
• £67 million in student support such as bursaries and childcare funding;
• £17 million in improvement grants for strategic development, ICT, e-learning, and widening access.
Up to 100,000 new students are expected. The biggest rise in students is due to 14-16 year olds on vocational courses; half of the new money for teaching – around £13.8 million – is for this group.
Recent Scottish Further and Higher Education Funding Council research found that FE expansion has also been fuelled by a government drive to encourage lifelong learning and improve adult skills, and businesses looking for more highly-skilled employees.
Please click here for more details.
Sunday, April 30, 2006
Friday, April 21, 2006
Wednesday, April 19, 2006
Monday, April 10, 2006
This latest report outlines developments to date and proposes several important changes to the curriculum within primary and secondary schools - including six levels of attainment (page 13) and eight subject areas under which all existing subjects would fall (page 14). The impact on schools could be significant.
The report provides a timeline for change (page 25) and seeking feedback on the ideas contained within it.
Sunday, April 09, 2006
Friday, April 07, 2006
Thursday, April 06, 2006
It's an interesting (if quite long) read and I learnt a great deal from it (for example, that 3% of employers are responsible for 72% of employees). But, in my opinion, he focuses too much on low and intermediate level vocational skills and doesn't say much about the effect of the Internet on learning and working.
Wednesday, April 05, 2006
Tuesday, April 04, 2006
Meanwhile, on a related note, research funded by the Economic and Social Research Council has suggested that education policy by itself contributes little to the rate at which people move between social classes; ‘comprehensive school is neither less nor more effective at promoting social mobility than a selective system’. The researchers from the University of Edinburgh point out that if changes to the structure of schooling could have an effect, then it would show in Scotland, where all selective schools in the public sector were abolished by the mid-1970s. Instead, the reforms had no impact on social mobility.
The reports available include ones on: the performance of awarding bodies; the number of enquiries about results and appeals; and reviews of standards in French, Computing and ICT, Mathematics, and Sociology.
Meanwhile, Ken Boston, QCA chief executive, has said that he is pushing for the overall burden of assessment in England and Wales to be reduced. He said, ‘The assessment load is huge. It is far greater than in other countries and not necessary for the purpose.’ Under QCA plans, from September 2008, pupils will take four papers for most A level papers, instead of the current six.
QCA has also been consulting on the development and implementation of functional skills. The new functional tests will be incorporated into English, Maths, and ICT GCSEs from 2008. Ken Boston, QCA Chief Executive, recently gave a speech on Maths education to the Commons Advisory Committee on Education. He said, ‘Every young person, with the right programmes and effective teaching, can master at least the functional level of mathematics necessary for life and work…mathematics now underpins even the most basic operations in areas such as food processing, health care, packaging, pharmaceuticals and tourism, just as much as it does the more traditional areas of engineering and electronics.’ The new functional skills will exist as stand-alone qualifications, but models of integrating or incorporating them into GCSEs are still under discussion.
Also in his speech on Maths education, Ken Boston welcomed Ruth Kelly’s announcement of the introduction of a Further Maths GCSE intended to ‘challenge the more able, engaging them in mathematical studies from a more abstract and structural perspective’ and emphasised that he thought that the new specialised diplomas would ‘provide an opportunity to drive up the level of performance in mathematics, especially for many young people who otherwise might not engage at all’.
Ahead of the publication of the Scottish Executive's NEET (not in education, training, or employment) strategy, Jack McConnell announced a new strategy focusing on disengaged youngsters.
Click here for more details.
HMIE has published a Report to SEED on the Delivery of National Priorities.
Improving Scottish Education
HMIE's presentation from the launch of Improving Scottish Education is available.
A Curriculum for Excellence
The Curriculum Review Programme Board has published its Curriculum for Excellence: Progress and Proposals paper. The purposes of the paper are given as: to describe progress and the main findings of the activities so far; to provide a narrative on the direction of travel, outlining recommended features of the curriculum in the future; to outline aspects where more thinking is required; and to stimulate the next stage of professional discussion and reflection, as part of the continuing process of shaping and influencing the curriculum.
Determined to Succeed
The Scottish Executive has recently published an evaluation of the first phase of the Determined to Succeed strategy.
Adult Literacy and Numeracy Strategy
The Scottish Executive has published the final report of the evaluation of the Scottish Adult Literacy and Numeracy Strategy. The report analyses the views of adult learners and the views of tutors in order to assess the impact of participation on individuals' lives and any perceived wider benefits.
What Motivates Adult Learners?
The Scottish Executive has published Looking to Learn: Investigating the Motivations to Learn and the Barriers Faced by Adults Wishing to Undertake Part-Time Study. Click here for the research.
Thursday, March 23, 2006
It was a nice evening with pupils from a couple of Fife clubs attending to give their impressions of the clubs in their schools.
The programme is being rolled out across Scotland with Fife and Glasgow regions being the most active at this time. More here.
Wednesday, March 22, 2006
The above ALT workshop will take place on 5th May 2006 at Kings College, London.
The topics to be covered include: the history of blogs; their technical architecture and relation to Web 2.0 technologies; blog formats and functionalities; the pedagogical implications of using blogs; blogging and RSS tools and practices; aggregating blogs using RSS.
The cost is £95 for ALT members, £150 for non-members and the deadline is 21st April 2006.
Please see http://www.alt.ac.uk/workshop_detail.php?e=216
Monday, March 13, 2006
Wednesday, March 08, 2006
Wednesday, March 01, 2006
Tuesday, February 28, 2006
The Sector Skills Council e-skills UK has announced the launch of Computer Club for Girls (CC4G) at the Scottish Parliament on 22nd March. After a successful pilot, CC4G will roll out to all Fife schools. Click here for more details on CC4G.
In e-assessment, an article in Edutopia describes the use of automated grading systems to score the work of US school students.
West Lothian Council has also won an award - a European Social Fund Best Practice award - for motivating pupils who have found mainstream education difficult. Their Alternative Curriculum programme involves a range of vocational activities to keep young people engaged in learning. Read the press release here.
Friday, February 24, 2006
Wednesday, February 22, 2006
Tuesday, February 21, 2006
Thursday, February 16, 2006
The report's author said that UK students should be encouraged to learn languages of the future - such as Spanish, Mandarin, and Arabic.
Click here for the BBC story.
Details of the survey are available here.
Wednesday, February 15, 2006
The review covered assessments carried out in sixth-forms, further education colleges, workplace training, and adult education. It found an over-reliance on traditional exams and written work and that there is too much emphasis on writing, rather than practical skills. A wider range of assessment methods - such as online testing - would perhaps motivate students more.
'...We are arguing for an assessment regime that is fit for purpose and supports learning rather than replaces it.'
The report - The impact of different modes of assessment on achievement - can be found on the LSDA website. Click here.
The university staff were questioned as part of the ongoing Nuffield Review of 14 to 19 education.
Meanwhile, on a related note, another BBC story reports that the Liberal Democrats are proposing that in England GCSEs and A-levels should be replaced by a national diploma. Scrapping the national curriculum after the age of 14, they say, would give schools the 'freedom to teach'. Click here for the article in full.
Thursday, February 09, 2006
Wednesday, February 08, 2006
Tuesday, February 07, 2006
SQA has recently produced a new qualification entitled "Internet Safety" which is the first national qualification in Europe to focus on this aspect of Internet use.
Monday, February 06, 2006
He stressed that the new curricular structure was a response to A Curriculum for Excellence. The approach embraces flexibility and, while some pupils may sit Intermediates in S3, there is no plan to impose this on all pupils.
'The focus is not on age and stage, but rather on teachers assessing these kids and saying this is the appropriate course for them.'
Saturday, February 04, 2006
Here in Scotland, I'm sure that would be a view expressed by Music educationalists. The on-going curriculum renewal through the Curriculum for Excellence places an emphasis on enabling all young people to become 'successful learners, confident individuals, responsible citizens and effective contributors'. Good rounded members of society.
But couldn't many other teachers also claim that their specialism delivers broader gains than mere subject knowledge and skills?
Me, I learnt much more useful life-skills (such as taking care of myself and social skills) in Home Economics classes where the girls were in a big majority...
Wednesday, February 01, 2006
Research by the universities of York and Sheffield for the DfES found the evidence inconclusive and called for a large-scale trial. The DfES re-iterated that they advise that the teaching of phonics should be 'set within a broad and rich language curriculum.'
Click here for the BBC story.
While an estimated 100 schools in the UK are now teaching Mandarin, an independent school in East Sussex - Brighton College - has become the first in the UK to make Mandarin Chinese compulsory for pupils, alongside French, Spanish, and Latin.
The BBC story is available here.
GCSE entries for Mandarin and Cantonese increased to just below 4,000 entries in 2005, and while this is still small, increasing business links with China means that this is likely to increase substantially over the next decade or so.
Is there any demand or need for more Chinese courses in Scotland if we too are to keep up with the world's fourth-biggest economy?
Tuesday, January 31, 2006
Scottish Executive Education Department has published a baseline report about school meals and pupils' eating habits, which will be used for comparison with evaluation data acquired by research over the next few years. It is intended to help track the effectiveness of local implementation of SEED's 'Hungry for Success' policy which aims to improve the health of Scotland's young people.
Clearly there is a long way to go, and eating habits are slow to change. Today's edition of 'The Herald' newspaper has a story entitled "Health aside.. pizza and chips still top choice for pupils", which points out that children usually still opt for unhealthy foods and drinks.
Besides those kids that take school meals, what about all the rest who bring in food or (in secondary years) leave school premises to go and buy some.
A BBC story "School ban for chip vans mooted" suggests that local authorities may be given powers to prevent mobile food outlets operating near school premises. Would the kids not just walk down the road a bit further to get their junk food?
What about parents? If more people were persuaded not to fill their little darling's lunch box with chocolate biscuits, bags of crisps, and cans of sweet fizzy drinks, that would help.
I'm about to set a bad example. Time for coffee and a muffin..
Sunday, January 29, 2006
Religious bigotry, principally between Protestants and Catholics and mainly in the West of Scotland, is a very unattractive feature of Scottish life. But it touches the lives of most Scots hardly at all, and is probably in a long-term decline as 'multi-cultural life' becomes more the norm across Scotland and the hard-line bigots die out.
Educational and other initiatives to address sectarianism have been around for some time, trying to change attitudes. For example, the Nil By Mouth campaign in Scottish football is well-established and works to reduce the incidence of intolerant individuals spoiling the pleasure of football for other people. And Learning and Teaching Scotland were behind an anti-sectarian education web resource in 2005.
One part of the action plan is to have more 'twinning' of catholic and non-denominational schools, to organise more joint events that bring children together from different communities.
The clear question that follows that is: why not take the logical next step and stop having separate schools labelled 'catholic' and 'non-denominational'? Create a reformed education system and let the young people truly mix and learn to live together.
Saturday, January 28, 2006
The BBC has launched the first phase of its keenly-anticipated 'Digital Curriculum' broadband service. Now branded as 'BBC Jam' , this service offers creative and innovative digital content and some tools to make better use of the material.
A BBC news story 'BBC curriculum gets kids to jam' provides background information.
My first impressions of two subjects were of some great stuff, so I'm looking forward to more in the future. Now let's get our teachers and students making use of the resources..
Given the obesity figures for Scottish children, would any of our Scottish schools like to try this?
Friday, January 27, 2006
I see the rationale behind this, that the S2 year (recognised as often undemanding and de-motivating) could have better use made of it, and that students would get longer working towards their Highers exams.
There are a few concerns:
1. That might suit bright and able teenagers, but what about the less-able young people who never reach the stage of taking Highers? Does this system write them off, or divert them into vocational classes?
2. This also implies that kids would have to choose which subjects to continue, and which to drop, at an even earlier stage - probably aged 13. Hard to make those kind of decisions so young.
3. Hard also for the teaching departments at school; they would have to persuade kids within just one year in S1 that their subjects were the ones to choose, or lose them to the subject for ever. Would the best teachers be put into S1 classes, to try to ensure that numbers were sustained for exam classes? Will exam grades then suffer, if the best teachers are in other classes?
Thursday, January 26, 2006
Its interesting reading. Are people in Scotland any different? Is the culture here less amenable to the benefits of life online?
My feeling is that we're maybe a year or so behind America still, in terms of both infrastructure development and social acceptance of the Internet's benefits and uses. The growth of services such as online dating and Internet poker in the UK demonstrates an acceptance of the Internet's value in certain circumstances.
For us in Scottish education, there's huge potential....
Tuesday, January 24, 2006
This article argues that the real difference between the generations has nothing to do with IT skills and more to do with media. This seems to be borne out by my own family - my children aren't particularly skilled with IT but they are incredibly comfortable with digital media.
Monday, January 23, 2006
Expenditure is rising, but the long standing problem of a lack of attainment for many children living in poverty is not much changed. A BBC story "Pupils' performance gap widening" considers this.
It's not simply about money.
The relationship between social deprivation and educational achievement is clear but complex, and there is a need for a better measure of school effectiveness in terms of 'added-value'. Schools in deprived areas start in more difficult circumstances and may achieve a great deal with their pupils which is not well reflected in exam results.
Other commentators have picked on the issue of local authority and school leadership. Can strong leadership make a difference and overcome to some degree the problems caused by poor economic context?
"Scotland's Culture: Scottish Executive Response on the Cultural Review" expresses the Executive's vision, the roles of national and local authorities, etc. And there are some significant changes in the plans, helpfully highlighted in a news release. Here's a few:
A new cultural development agency 'Creative Scotland' will be formed, by merging two existing public bodies - the Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen. Two very different organisations, one in Glasgow one in Edinburgh.
The new body will lose one responsibility, the funding of national performing companies such as Scottish Opera, which will be done directly by the Executive.
The national collections of Scotland will be expanded. If this means better resources for gems such as the excellent Scottish Screen Archive and better use of resources by all, I'll be pleased.
A new system of 'cultural rights' and entitlements for citizens will be introduced. This one is vague at the moment, and local authorities may not welcome a responsibility to provide services to meet local citizens' entitlements (and who decides what they are entitled to? the council or the consumer?) without extra funding.
Education is recognised as important, to support the development of a new generation of creative individuals. That's good news! And it fits with the on-going curriculum renewal process, and the emphasis in 'A Curriculum for Excellence' on young people as effective contributors, successful learners, etc.
Now we just have to make all of this a reality..
That research was conducted in England, but I reckon Scottish teenagers (and many adults) would share the view that scientists are a bit odd and not the sexiest specimens around.
There are a lot of factors that influence the choices made by teenagers when choosing their subjects for exams/qualifications at age 13, but parental influence is a key one, and ideas about future jobs are another. Widespread public perception that scientists are unattractive nerds is a significant hurdle to overcome, and makes it essential to have activity and campaigns to persuade children and adults otherwise.
NESTA does some good work on Science education projects and the public communication of science. For example, Planet Science is a great resource.
Scottish Executive Education Department has also supported science education in Scottish schools through initiatives such as 'Improving Science Education 5-14'.
Sunday, January 22, 2006
Saturday, January 21, 2006
Thursday, January 19, 2006
A SEED news release highlights one significant problem. School children are rarely getting enough time actually doing some physical activity in school. (a minimum of two hours per week is the target). A BBC story 'Minister exercised over PE issue' covers this point and the varied responses of the Education authorities to the shortfall in provision.
In many places there isn't much out-of-school hours sport either. And parents can't avoid their responsibilities towards the eating and drinking behaviour of their children, and the lack of exercise they take. Combining a lack of physical activity with a poor diet, it's no wonder that the childhood obesity figures for Scotland are a national disgrace.
Tuesday, January 17, 2006
Monday, January 16, 2006
I visited their exhibition stand at the BETT show in London last week, and their staff showed off some of the activities and simulations developed through their projects. The 'Mudlarking in Deptford' project was one I liked, using mobile technologies to engage with the environment and history of their area through creation of a multimedia tour.
Up in Scotland, John Kirriemuir is a 'veteran' researcher and consultant on games in learning, with a website and the Silversprite blog.
Sunday, January 15, 2006
I'm a believer in the benefits of computer games for learning too, but I wouldnt want my kids learning their driving skills from 'Need for Speed' ....
Tuesday, January 10, 2006
Any Scottish teachers out there who'd like to volunteer? I'm tempted myself, the latest mobile phones are beyond my capacity...
Monday, January 09, 2006
The only criteria are that you have an interest in Scottish education and you can occasionally post links to interesting stories and useful resources. You can get a flavour of the sorts of posts by reading the existing blog. Don't worry if you have never blogged before - posting a message is simple.
Drop me an e-mail if you want to become a contributor.
Sunday, January 08, 2006
The previous years of the contest have generated good websites on subjects such as hunger and famine, health, security, etc. The closing date is 17th March 2006.
The competition is run through Global Schoolnet, an American educational foundation with a track-record of worthwhile internet projects.
Friday, January 06, 2006
Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia which anyone can contribute to. As a result, it's growing at a phenomenal rate and is very up to date. It's a fantastic educational resource - but not without its critics (ironically documented by Wikipedia).
I've made one or two contributions already but intend to write more in 2006. It would be good if more Scottish educationalists contributed.
Thursday, January 05, 2006
I think that it's a bit optimistic about what can be acheived in the next eight years but it makes bold predictions about the future - many of which will come true.
Not everyone is convinced: There are lots of other demands on education expenditure, and not all local politicians and education managers are convinced of the cost-benefit proposition; a risk of over-exposure to ICT worries some teachers and parents;
No Scottish education authority has yet implemented a personal access strategy, although several have aspirations. Small scale projects with laptops and handheld computers in cities such as Dundee and Glasgow have not been continued.
An October 2005 BBC story "Diary of a laptop school pupil" descibed the life of a teenager at a High School in Arizona, USA, who makes extensive use of ICT with positive attitude.
A new story in USA today "Schools ask parents to pay up before kids log on" reports on a California elementary school's experience with laptops for younger kids and the local digital inclusion issues.